Greenberg, Douglas. The Middle colonies consisted of Pennsylvania, New Jersey, New York, and Delaware. The fertile soil of these colonies allowed them to grow crops, particularly grains. In New York and Pennsylva-nia, farmers grew large quantities of wheat and other cash crops,crops that could be sold easily Due to the three large rivers in these colonies — the Susquehanna, the Delaware and Hudson — fur trading was also important to the economy. Because of their prime locations along the Eastern coast, the Middle colonies were important distribution centers for English merchants. This area was reclaimed by the Dutch in 1655. 2.What goods did the British colonies import and export. The most populous of the Middle colonies was Pennsylvania, other colonies were settled rather haphazardly over the course of the 17th century. Fur trappers moved along these rivers, and there was enough flow to enable milling with water wheel power. The Middle Colonies are New Jersey, New York, Delaware, and Pennsylvania. The United States Declaration of Independence ended their colonial status. In Pennsylvania, sawmills and gristmills were abundant, and the textile industry grew quickly. [21] Often areas of the Middle Colonies displayed prevalent Irish cultural influence. European ethnic groups as manifold as English, Swedes, Dutch, Germans, Scots-Irish and French lived in closer proximity than in any location on continental Europe. See disclaimer. Royal governors were arrested or overthrown on more than one occasion, most notably when New Jersey arrested its governor and during Leisler's Rebellion in New York. The Duke of York never governed the colony himself: he instead appointed governors, councils, and other officers to run the government. A major contributor to the growth of the English middle class was the business generated by the American colonies. When James II was overthrown, the citizens of New York rebelled against the Royal Governor in Leisler's Rebellion. Due to all the wheat they could grow, these colonies became known as the Bread Basket of North America. The industry and farming skills they brought with them helped solidify the Middle Colonies' prosperity. [9] Edward Hyde, 3rd Earl of Clarendon became the royal colony's first governor. Unlike the New England colonies, which were settled by Puritans seeking religious freedom, settlers who arrived in the Middle Colonies were there for economic reasons. The Pennsylvania Assembly took this opportunity to request expanded power for elected officials, led by David Lloyd. Farmers grew more than they could use and sold the rest. New York's charter and constitution were reinstated soon after. With Swedish funding, the third governor of New Netherland later founded the colony of New Sweden in the region around Delaware Bay in 1638. [15] A Deputy of the Duke governed Delaware from 1664 to 1682. a) A smaller population of settlers b) Moderate weather and fertile soil Local religious groups ran the schools in the middle colonies. New York, originally called New Amsterdam, was given to the Duke of York. The Middle colonies were also a “middle region” between the North and South. [22], Ethnically, the Middle Colonies were more diverse than the other British colonial regions in North America and tended to be more socially tolerant. Before the American Revolution, America was made up of 13 colonies. What main advantage did the Middle colonies have over New England? In return they receive either sugar, molasses, rum, indigo, mahogany, and other goods, or ready money. Though the war ended in a Dutch victory in 1667, the English retained New Netherland and renamed it New York after the English King's brother, the Duke of York, who had co-instigated the war for personal gain and had commanded the attack on New Netherland. New York and Philadelphia were the Middle Colonie’s biggest cities. [12] From 1692 to 1694, revolution in England deprived Penn of the governance of his colony. [16] In 1701, after he had troubles governing the ethnically diverse Delaware territory, Penn agreed to allow them a separate colonial assembly.[15]. The goods imported include tobacco, sugar, and other tropical groceries. "Themes and Directions in Middles Colonies Historiography, 1980–1994". What kind of soil did the middle colonies have and what was it good for? After Hyde was recalled to England in 1708 over charges of graft, bribery, and corruption, the governor of New York was charged to also preside over New Jersey. The Penn family were Quakers, and the colony became a favorite destination for that group as well as German Lutherans, German Reformed and numerous small sects such as Mennonites, Amish and Moravian, not to mention Scotch Irish Presbyterians. While the Middle Colonies had far more industry than the Southern Colonies, it still did not rival the industry of New England. It was the connector colonies that connected the New England Colonies with the Southern Colonies. The mid-A… Due to their central location, the Middle Colonies were able to be a place of important distribution to the colonies. 5th grade. The Middle Colonies were explored by Henry Hudson for the Dutch East India Company in 1609, sailing up the Hudson River to present-day Albany, New York, and along the Delaware Bay. The Middle Colonies had much fertile soil, which allowed the area to become a major exporter of wheat and other grains. They primarily pushed farther into the western frontier of the colonies, where they repeatedly confronted the Indians. Indentured servitude was especially common in Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and New York in the eighteenth century, though fewer worked in agriculture. The Congress had Royal Governor William Franklin arrested on June 15, declaring him "an enemy to the liberties of this country". The Middle Colonies had rich soil, allowing the area to become a major exporter of wheat and other grains. Plus, many people were artisans or merchants with many skills. At first, most were Dutch, French, Belgian, or Swedish. The Middle colonies, the middle region of the 13 colonies, were the states of New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Delaware. The Dutch further explored and charted the area in multiple voyages between 1610 and 1616; the first Dutch settlements were built in 1613 and the name New Netherland appeared on maps from 1614 on. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. The First Great Awakening invigorated religiosity and helped stimulate the growth of Congregational, Methodist and Baptist churches. Middle Colonies Way of Life. Demarcated by the 42nd parallel north and 39th parallel north, Pennsylvania was bordered by the Delaware River and the colonies of New York, Maryland, and New Jersey. In New York's Hudson Valley, however, the Dutch patroons operated very large landed estates and rented land to tenant farmers. Bodle, Wayne. In most colonies the church was the school and town hall. In addition, iron factories would export iron ore to England. The lumber and shipbuilding industries were also successful in the Middle Colonies because of the abundant forests, and Pennsylvania was moderately successful in the textile and iron industries. 3.In what ways did the flow of raw materials from the colonies affect British Industries? [17] Broad navigable rivers of relaxed current like the Susquehanna River, the Delaware River, and the Hudson River attracted diverse business. Welsh Quakers, Baptists and Methodists settled in the Welsh Tract of Pennsylvania. Classroom is the educational resource for people of all ages. Why were New York City and Philadelphia easier places to import and export goods? They began selling grain to other colonies and to England, shipping out of the big ports in Philadelphia and New York. Favorite Answer. Upon visiting the colony in 1669 and 1701, Penn eventually agreed to allow their Charter of Privileges to be added to the constitution. Colonists were required to pay annual quit-rent taxes. Strong timber, iron, and shipbuilding industries helped make these colonies major trade centers. In addition, iron factories would export iron ore to England. The Delaware Colony later separated from Pennsylvania, which was founded by William Penn. [13][18], The Middle Colonies’ political groups began as small groups with narrowly focused goals. The Middle Colonies were more diverse than the other regions, and also less cohesive. [23], German immigrants favored the Middle Colonies. These were demarcated into three regions: the New England Colonies (Rhode Island, Connecticut, Massachusetts and New Hampshire), the Southern Colonies (Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia) and the Middle Colonies (Delaware, Pennsylvania, New York and New Jersey). The Middle Colonies became known as the "breadbasket" colonies because of their ability to grow crops used to make bread. [13] When the British banned western expansion in 1764, fighting among colonists and against the natives swelled. The true mahogany, which grows in Jamaica, is at present almost all cut down. The British captured much of the area in their war with the Dutch around 1664, and the majority of the conquered land became the Province of New York. Lumber and shipbuilding were both important industries in the Middle Colonies. While some Welsh colonists like Roger Williams, left to found Rhode Island, Anne Hutchinson founded a seed settlement in New York. The landscape made growing grains a profitable venture for these colonists. Lumber and shipbuilding were both important industries in the Middle Colonies. German immigration greatly increased around 1717, and many immigrants began coming from the Rhineland. Governor William Tryon and all royal officials were forced from the colony on October 19, 1775. For thither the inhabitants ship almost every day a quantity of flour, butter, flesh and other victuals; timber, plank and the like. In 1665, the Concession and Agreement was written in an effort to entice settlers to New Jersey. The lumber and shipbuilding industries enjoyed success in the Middle Colonies, and Pennsylvania saw moderate success in the textile and iron industry. New York's initial possession of parts of Maine ensured a close relationship with other New England colonies like Vermont and a continuing New England influence in the colony. Social Studies for Kids: The 13 American Colonies Part 2: Characteristics of the Middle Colonies. From 1701 to 1765, colonists skirmished in the New York-New Jersey Line War over disputed colonial boundaries. When the English took direct control of the Middle Colonies around 1664, many Quakers from Rhode Island had already been pushed into the region by Puritans, while Episcopalian businessmen settled in Philadelphia and New York City. [29] There was a Jewish community already established in New York from 1654 (when it was still New Amsterdam), and Jews settled in what became Pennsylvania from 1655. They had to import food and use their natural resources to provide items to trade. The partly unglaciated Middle Colonies enjoyed fertile soil vastly different from the nearby New England Colonies, which contained more rocky soil. How did the New England and Middle colonies' economies differ in general from the economy of the South? Pennsylvania Society of Governors (1916), 180-181. 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